I believe this is probably one of the most important books of the 21st Century. It is important because it foretells the future of the entire planet. From what I have read and what I have experienced in the last 68 years, the weather is getting worse and it doesn’t appear that it’s going to be getting any better. This is a book that cannot be ignored. Only government-generated material is included.
Earth’s climate is now changing faster
than at any point in the history
of modern civilization, primarily as a
result of human activities. The impacts
of global climate change are already
being felt in the United States and are
projected to intensify in the future—but
the severity of future impacts will depend
largely on actions taken to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt
to the changes that will occur.
As Volume I of NCA4, this serves several purposes, including providing 1) an updated detailed analysis of the findings of how climate change is affecting weather and climate across the United States; 2) an executive summary and other CSSR materials that provide the basis for the discussion of climate science found in the second volume of the NCA4; and 3) foundational information and projections for climate change, including extremes, to improve “end-to-end” consistency in sectoral, regional, and resilience analyses within the second volume. CSSR integrates and evaluates the findings on climate science and discusses the uncertainties associated with these findings.
It analyzes current trends in climate change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends to the end of this century. As an assessment and analysis of the science, this report provides important input to the development of other parts of NCA4, and their primary focus on the human welfare, societal, economic, and environmental elements of climate change.
The Climate Science Special Report (CSSR) is designed to be an authoritative assessment of the science of climate change, with a focus on the United States, to serve as the foundation for efforts to assess climate-related risks and inform decision-making about responses.
The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) 2014 Climate Change Assessment Roadmap lists four primary climate change phenomena likely to affect the Department’s activities:
• Rising global temperatures
• Changing precipitation patterns
• Increasing frequency or intensity of extreme weather events
• Rising sea levels and associated storm surge
These climate change phenomena translate into hazards and impacts at military installations. The
Roadmap lists possible impacts to Plans and Operations, Testing and Training, Built and Natural
Infrastructure, and Supply Chain and Acquisition. The occurrence and severity of these impacts will likely increase as the climate continues to change.
This Handbook provides the analytical framework, as well as tools and other guidance, to help planners understand how to consider climate change in their plans and projects for installation infrastructure. More specifically, this document leads planners through the process of identifying and assessing possible adaptation action alternatives, or methods for adapting to the impacts of climate change. These adaptation measures are intended to improve their installation’s resiliency, or capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant hazards.
In accordance with Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 2‐100‐01, Installation Master Planning , and other DoD guidance, Navy Master Development Planners are directed “to consider” climate change in the development of Master Plans and projects.
This book demonstrates the very real impact of global warming and the need to strengthen the resiliency of infrastructure used by DOD. This book identifies recommendations for executive action.
Climate change deniers can stick their heads in the sand and pretend climate change is not real,
but this book explains the science behind what is happening and clearly documents what should
otherwise be obvious. In addition to sea level will rise, the DoD installations have been damaged
by extreme weather events. To make matters worse, the land is sinking in some places and
groundwater is being impacted. Global weather conditions are getting worse so even if the sea
level rises slower than expected, hurricane storm surge and increased rainfall will wreak havoc
with the electric grid, natural gas pipelines, municipal water and sewage treatment plants.
Climate change will also result in humanitarian stressors for the DoD to deal with after a natural
disaster. That said, we can expect wildfires in parts of the country not known for wildfires and
flooding everywhere along the coasts. In our books “Sea Level Rise Maps” we show where
coastal flooding will begin starting as early as the year 2030. We can expect to lose more than
fancy beach houses. At least 30 major airports in cities like Boston, New York’s JFK and
LaGuardia, Newark, Philadelphia, Miami, San Diego and San Francisco will all be completely
underwater by the year 2100 – and there is nothing anyone can do about it. Even if we reduce
our carbon footprint to zero today, the process has already begun.
DOD installations overseas have experienced operational and budgetary risks posed by weather effects associated with climate change impacts at the military services’ installations in each of DOD’s geographic combatant commands.
These maps illustrate the scale of potential coastal flooding in the years 2040- 2100 after varying amounts of sea level rise. The maps were produced by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using detailed elevation maps with local and regional tidal
variability. They show the extent of inundation likely at high tide after various amounts of sea level rise. At the current rate of rise, the sea level on the east coast is expected to rise around 8 feet by the year 2100. That’s only 81 years from now! Some places will flood sooner so the year is shown
beside the name of the location.
It will be necessary to build a levee around Manhattan Island, but at enormous cost. The possibility of building a levee around Sanibel Island? Not likely. So, if you live close to the ocean, you may want to think about moving further inland in the next 20 years or so. If you are thinking about buying a home close to the water, check out these maps first. If the area is light blue, it will likely be under water – sooner than you think!
Look at photograps of LaGuardia Airport when Hurricane Sandy hit New York City and you will get an idea what sea level rise will do.
The 2011 CCM, 4th Ed. (FEMA P-55), is a 2-volume publication that provides a comprehensive approach to planning, siting, designing, constructing, and maintaining homes in the coastal environment. Volume I provides information about hazard identification, siting decisions, regulatory requirements, economic implications, and risk management. The primary audience for Volume I is design professionals, officials, and those involved in the decision-making process. Volume II contains in-depth descriptions of design, construction, and maintenance practices that, when followed, will increase the durability of residential buildings in the harsh coastal environment and reduce economic losses associated with coastal natural disasters. The primary audience for Volume II is the design professional who is familiar with building codes and standards and; has a basic understanding of engineering principles.
Only by designing buildings properly will they be capable of withstanding hurricanes and the storm surge that follows. Printed in full Color.
This investigation focused on Roi-Namur Island, which is on the northernmost tip of Kwajalein
Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Physics-based numerical oceanographic and
hydrogeologic models were used to forecast how future sea-level rise and climate change will
affect wave-driven flooding of the island and evaluate its resulting impacts to infrastructure and
Department of Defense installations around the world are at risk due to climate change.
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